Poor Mental Models fail teams before they even start?
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According to Peter Senge author of The Fifth Discipline book people act according to their "mental models" which he defines as:
"deeply ingrained assumptions, generalizations, or even pictures or images that influence how we understand the world and how we take action. Very often, we are not consciously aware of our mental models or the effects they have on our behavior. The discipline of working with mental models starts with turning the mirror inward; learning to unearth our internal pictures of the world, to bring them to the surface and hold them rigorously to scrutiny."
Now here is the really important thing about mental models - there are two very different mental model knocking about in our heads for every important aspect of our lives:
Espoused models are what we think we believe or how we might explain our beliefs to others
In-use models are what an analysis of our real-world actions, by an independent observer would suggest we actually believe.
As an example take the important topic "Skidding on Ice in a car" ....
Our espoused mental model would probably reflect best practice of turning into the skid. However because the espoused model is somewhat counter-intuitive our In-use model may actually be to turn against the skid with the inevitable consequences. I know this from hard experience!
Here is another example of mental models applied to teams - the cartoon at the top of the article refers!
I believe that the In-use models of some software project managers - "its better to be doing something instead of nothing - even if you don't know what you are doing". However if you asked them what they believe about software project management (i.e. their Espoused Models) they would probably say they always get the requirements clear before they let their team start coding! Can you see the problem?
How to use "mental models" to improve teams
An excellent team session is to openly explore both Espoused and In-Use mental models in the key team areas such as:
- Team Leadership
- Risks and Rewards
- Initiative and autonomy
If you would like a checklist you can use to steer your investigations you can use my on-line Bioteams Beliefs Questionnaire.
But how do you actually change mental models?
That's the bigger question and merits a whole article in itself - however here are 3 simple ideas to get you started:
1) You can't change mental models if you don't see them - so the first step is making mental models visible.
2) Even when you see your mental models you may not believe them - so a good approach is to invent ways for team members to experience their mental models in some way - simulation and role-playing is a great way to do this.
3) Sometimes the required mental model change is simply too big to take in one step - think about interim "bridge" models to get the change started in the right directions.
For a much more detailed exploration of "mental models and teams" see A Management Flight Simulator for Virtual
Enterprise Network Incubation
About Ken Thompson
Ken Thompson is an expert practitioner in the area of bioteaming, swarming, virtual enterprise networks, virtual professional communities, virtual teams and management simulation and has published two landmark books:
Bioteams: High Performance Teams Based on Nature's Best Designs
The Networked Enterprise: Competing for the future through Virtual Enterprise Networks
Ken writes the highly popular bioteams blog which has over 600 articles on all aspects of bioteams (aka organizational biomimicry) - in other words how human groups can learn from nature's best teams.
Ken is also founder of an exciting European technology company Swarmteams which provides unique patent-pending bioteaming technologies for all shapes and sizes of groups, social networks, business clusters, virtual/mobile communities and enterprises. Swarmteams enables groups to be more responsive and agile by fully integrating their mobile phones and the web with bioteam working techniques.
The latest Swarmteams implementation is SwarmTribes which helps social object owners (e.g. musicians/bands, sports teams, film-makers) and good cause sponsors (e.g. Volunteering, Environmental, Public Health) to form unique collaborations with their fans/supporters for mutual benefit.
Bioteams Books Reviews
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